Why-ology Library

Go beyond the what to the why of consumer behavior.

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White Papers

 

  • September 2018

    Electric Vehicles: Who Buys Them?
    At the end of 2017, the cumulative global number of electric vehicles was an estimated 3 million. The preponderance of fossil-fuel cars and trucks raises the question, What kinds of people are breaking with tradition to buy electric vehicles?

  • August 2018

    Jeep: A Beloved US Brand
    For more than 7 decades, Jeep has created memories from service during WWII to serious off-roading. Its no wonder if you see more Jeeps on the road today than previously. Who owns a Jeep and who would buy a Jeep if purchasing tomorrow?

  • August 2018

    Wedding Bells
    Very few newlyweds receive titles or have the Royal Exchequer pick up the tab, but—with few exceptions—every bride is a princess on her wedding day. One consumer group is more likely than all others to have married in the past 12 months.

  • August 2018

    Worried and Stressed about Money?
    SBI's MacroMonitor Recontact Study reveals that almost 57% of US households say they have no money worries, or if they do, they don't feel stressed about them. A review of the number of months in which households are stressed and worried varies widely by VALS consumer group.

  • April 2018

    Guns: Who Owns? Who's Buying?
    Gun-manufacturer sales are in decline. However, the number of people who own a hand gun, rifle, or shotgun continues to increase. Which consumer groups own a gun and which are buying? The types of consumers who own a firearm may surprise you.

  • April 2018

    VALS by State
    People living in particular states may exhibit some differences in consumer behaviors from behaviors of people living in other states, but it's differences in the distribution of VALS types that give a state a unique flavor.

  • March 2018

    FinTech and Innovation Diffusion
    FinTech adoption presents a challenge and opportunity for every business. VALS identifies which consumers are necessary for a successful new product introduction and how the product will diffuse to different consumer segments.

  • January 2018

    Generation Z and Millennials
    Descriptions of emerging Gen Z consumers and workers make for interesting reading. However, don't confuse overall social trends with generational-cohort characterizations.

  • January 2018

    Asian Americans by VALS™
    The US Asian population grew 72% between 2000 and 2015, the fastest growth rate of any major racial or ethnic group.

  • January 2018

    Is Anyone Watching (Network) TV?
    In 1975 the average household had 1½ TVs per household. By 2010, the average household had a TV for every household member, but TV-program ratings had declined dramatically. Who is watching network TV?

  • October 2017

    Faces of Innovators Women
    Even though women are making gains on every front, women continue to be underrepresented in top positions.

  • October 2017

    Facebook under Fire
    Special council Robert Mueller explores Russian-troll-farm ads placed on Facebook and their influence on voters in the 2016 US presidential election. VALS explores which consumers are most likely to have been affected.

  • October 2017

    Game of Thrones
    In an ever expanding sea of viewer choice, for which consumers has Game of Thrones achieved cult status?

  • October 2017

    The Vietnam War
    More than 40 years after the Vietnam War's end, Ken Burns (American Experience/PBS) reports on the profound ways the war changed United States history. Who's most likely to have interest and watch?

  • October 2017

    Hispanic-Americans by VALS™
    As discussion and debate swirl around US immigration policy, a look at some facts about Hispanic Americans is enlightening.

  • August 2017

    Paying with Your Phone
    Many shoppers use their mobile phones to compare prices, to take pictures of items for later consideration, or simply to call home from the grocery store aisle. Now, some US consumers are also beginning to use smart phones as a payment method, instead of cash or credit.

  • August 2017

    A Retail Tale
    Excessive retail space in the US and the rise in online shopping are changing the marketplace. A comparison of two giants—Walmart and Amazon.com—highlights retail's evolution.

  • August 2017

    The Experience Economy
    Marketers are talking about consumers' desire for experience and the need to increase consumer engagement in the new economy. The question is, for which consumers is experience the new product?

  • April 2017

    Understanding Survey Sampling
    The failure of survey organizations and pollsters to predict the victory of Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election resulted in renewed interest in questions of representation.

  • April 2017

    Who Hails Taxis? Who Taps Apps (for Ridesharing)?
    On an average weekday, who hails a taxi and who taps an app for ride sharing? Which VALS types might be the next to shift?

  • February 2017

    Trade-Offs: Eating Out
    Since 2014, grocery spending is in decline. Who is trading off preparing food at home for eating food away from home? Restaurant visits are increasing unevenly across restaurant types and consumer groups.

  • February 2017

    Millennials versus Boomers
    As young adults, Millennials differ from Baby Boomers of the 1980s. Fragmentation of social values during the 1980s was disruptive. The long-term effects of today's constrained economic environment faced by Millennials may prove to be equally disruptive to society.

The Classics

Timeless classics that never go out of style from our collection of White Papers.

 

Archives

Trends

White Papers

  • November 2016

    Defining Happiness to Build Brands: Personality
    The fourth in a series examining definitions of happiness to build brands, this report explores how future happiness branding may profit from a differentiation of happiness definitions by different consumer groups who have different set points for happiness, but also experience happiness differently.

  • October 2016

    Environment and Human Character
    People change their perception of environments on the basis of their own physical characteristics and abilities. Can such research help to promote desirable behaviors?

  • October 2016

    Go Boldly into the Future
    On the 50-year anniversary of Star Trek, VALS examines how the series contains a valuable lesson for how businesses can think about going boldly into their future more reliably.

  • September 2016

    Defining Happiness to Build Brands: Happiness or Meaning?
    The third in a series examining definitions of happiness to build brands, this report explores the shift in happiness for people who give time compared to people who give money.

  • August 2016

    Use VALS™ to Position a Brand
    VALS enables marketers to understand that their brand doesn't have to be all things to all people, but rather what things are important to their best prospects.

  • August 2016

    Student-Loan Debt
    Student-loan debt continues to inhibit Millennials' desire and ability to buy homes, vehicles, and other necessary products as households form and they establish families.

  • July 2016

    Defining Happiness to Build Brands: Experiential versus Material Happiness
    The second in a series examining definitions of happiness to build brands, this report explores the psychological costs of living in a materialistic society by framing consumption as a series of life experiences, rather than a series of acquisitions.

  • May 2016

    Defining Happiness to Build Brands: The Basics
    This report is the first in a series examining definitions of happiness to inform brand managers about how to measure and define the concept flexibly over time.

  • June 2015

    Navigating Outside Influences on Brands
    Modern branding involves a complex interplay between strategic objectives and consumer acceptance.

  • October 2014

    Smartphone Personalities
    Not everyone uses smartphones in the same way or for the same reasons.